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19 July, 2012

Strongly-integrated loan verbs and weak-final quadriconsonantal roots

Splitting quadriliteral verbs into strong and weak is not universal in the literature. At least Borg and Azzopardi-Alexander make no mention of this, however their treatment of quad verbs feels a little lacking to me. But they do make the following distinctions:

  1. Repeated bi-radical base, e.g. GEMGEM (G-M-G-M)
  2. Repeated third radical (C3), e.g. GERBEB (G-R-B-B)
  3. Repeated first radical (C1) after the second (C2), e.g. ŻERŻAQ (Ż-R-Ż-Q)
  4. Addition of a fourth radical to a triradical base, e.g. ĦARBAT (Ħ-R-B-T)

They make no reference to weak radicals in quad verbs. They then go on to discuss “strongly-integrated loan verbs”, i.e. verbs of Romance or even possibly English origin which have taken on completely regular Semitic-style morphology. The examples given are KANTA, VINĊA, and SERVA, which correspond to the 3 different verb endings in Italian (cantare, vincere, and servire respectively).

Spagnol agrees with this, but goes farther and actually classifies these verbs as quadriliteral verbs with the weak consonant J as the fourth radical. Here’s a table of some of the most common ones, including ones for which I could find no Romance origin word.

English Romance origin Għerq (Root) Mamma (Perf P3 Sg Masc) Imperative P2 Sg Perfect P1 Sg Perfect P3 Sg Fem
to sing cantare K-N-T-J kanta kanta kantajt kantat
to serve servire S-R-V-J serva servi servejt serviet
to win vincere V-N-Ċ-J vinċa vinċi vinċejt vinċiet
to ask - S-Q-S-J saqsa saqsi saqsejt saqsiet
to draw - P-N-Ġ-J pinġa pinġi pinġejt pinġiet
to enjoy godere G-W-D-J gawda gawdi gawdejt gawdiet
to talk parlare P-R-L-J parla parla parlajt parlat
to complete - L-S-T-J lesta lesti lestejt lestiet
to vary variare V-R-J-J varja varja varjajt varjat

Looking at the vowel patterns, we end up with a very neat division:

Romance ending Mamma (Perf P3 Sg Masc) Imperative P2 Sg Perfect P1 Sg Perfect P3 Sg Fem
-are a a a a
-ire/-ere/- a i e ie

In other words, the vowel patterns are always the same, except for when the verb derives from a Romance -are verb.

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