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24 August, 2012

Vowel length and negation

Continuing the previous post about vowel lengths, here are some remarks about the handling of the long vowel ie under negation (which is after all the suffixation of the letter x).

Consider the verbs waqaf, kiel, and ħa. Note that the latter two are irregular, however I think they are still valid for the point I want to make. Their imperfect forms all consist of a stem which begins with the long vowel ie: nieqaf, tiekol, jieħu. Does this vowel get shortened under negation? Let’s see what the Maltese corpus has to say about this:

waqaf

-ieqaf -ieqafx -iqafx -ieqfu -ieqfux -iqfux
n- 1070 21 26 850 24 12
t- 2124 116 53 23 3 2
j- 2828 90 102 1390 51 58
Totals 6022 227 281 2263 78 72

kiel

-iekol -iekolx -ikolx -ieklu -ieklux -iklux
n- 292 3 8 752 7 8
t- 935 18 18 75 1 7
j- 1339 16 21 1747 30 18
Totals 2566 37 47 2574 38 33

ħa

-ieħu -ieħux -iħux -ieħdu -ieħdux -iħdux
n- 7191 23 58 11215 24 38
t- 17643 101 163 631 6 5
j- 33070 155 204 22682 113 103
Totals 57904 279 425 34528 143 146

These are the totals of the negative forms, as percentages of the total occurrences of the corresponding positive form:

Verb Singular IE Singular I Plural IE Plural I
waqaf 3.76% 4.66% 3.45% 3.18%
kiel 1.44% 1.83% 1.48% 1.28%
ħa 0.48% 0.73% 0.41% 0.42%

So what do all these numbers mean?
When considering the singular negative, the version without the long ie vowel is more common in all cases. As an example, ma nikolx is more common than ma niekolx, which would indicate that the former is really the correct form.

In the plural though, it’s almost the complete opposite. To continue our example, this means that ma nieklux is slightly more frequent that ma niklux. However the difference in frequency is less pronounced: 7% in plural compared to 12% in singular for the given example.

So here we have another indication of the correct spelling, but not exactly hard evidence. The more I try to rely on the corpus for these things, the more apparent it becomes that it is not really a good settler of questions of minor orthographic differences.

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